Direct and Indirect Speech is used to express the content of any statements, questions or other utterances made by anyone. There are to ways to express the statement, question or utterance. One is Direct Speech and Second one is Indirect Speech. In Direct Speech, we quote the statement as it was made. But in indirect speech, we have a slight change in words of the one who is making the statement. We don’t quote the exact words.
Changes of Tenses in Narration is very very important because any mistake in tense may lead to the critical mistakes. So in this lesson, we will try to learn change in Simple Present Tense in Direct and Indirect. Starting from the rules of tenses, we will end this lecture up using some examples of every rule.
CHANGES IN PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE
Usually, the present changes to past tense when we change direct speech into indirect speech.
Examples are explained below;
|Direct Speech||Indirect speech|
|She said, “She works in New York Times”.||She said that she worked in New York Times.|
|Jim said, “Bill loves to eat fish”.||Jim said that bill loved to eat fish.|
|He said, “I write a book’’.||He said that he wrote a book.|
|She said, “He goes to school daily”.||She said that he went to school daily.|
|They said, “We love our country”.||They said that they loved their country.|
How to Use Universal Truths???
If the content is still true or happening then we do not need to change the tense in the reported speech.
OR, in case of universal truth, proverb, mathematical facts, habitual action, historic facts and imaginary sentences we don’t change the tense in reported speech.
Let’s have examples to learn this concept;
|Direct speech||Indirect speech|
|He said, “Sun rises in the east”.||He said that sun rises in the east|
|My teacher said, “Earth revolves around the sun”.||My teacher said that Earth revolves around the Sun.|
|She said, “All that glitters is not gold”.||She said that all that glitters is not gold.|
|Ali said, “Four and four is eight”.||Ali said that four and four is eight.|
If reporting verb is given in present or future tense:
If reporting verb is given in Present or Future tense then there will be no change in the verb or tense of Reported speech
Direct: The teacher says, “Ali performs on the stage”
Indirect: The teacher says that Ali performs on the stage.
Different Examples of Changes in Present Indefinite Tense in Narration.
|Direct: She said, “I go to school daily”.||اس نے کہا، “میں روزانہ اسکول جاتی ہوں”۔|
|Indirect: He said that she went to school daily.||اس نے بتایا کہ وہ روزانہ اسکول جاتی تھی۔|
|Direct: He said, “He likes computer “.||انہوں نے کہا، “وہ کمپیوٹر پسند کرتا ہے “.|
|Indirect: He said that he liked computer.||اس نے کہا کہ اسے کمپیوٹر پسند ہے۔|
|Direct: He said, “She listens to the music||انہوں نے کہا، “وہ موسیقی سنتی ہے “.|
|Indirect: He said that she listened to the music.||انہوں نے کہا کہ وہ موسیقی سنتی ہیں۔|
|Direct: She said, “I wash my clothes “.||اس نے کہا، “میں اپنے کپڑے دھوتی ہوں”۔|
|Indirect: She said that she washed her clothes.||اس نے بتایا کہ اس نے کپڑے دھوئے۔|
|Direct: I said, “It rains “.||میں نے کہا، “بارش ہوتی ہے”۔|
|Indirect: I said that it rained.||میں نے کہا کہ بارش ہوئی۔|
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