English Grammar

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules and Examples in English & Urdu

Direct and Indirect Speech with Rules and 100 Examples in English and Urdu - PDF Form is Available

Direct and Indirect Speech is used to express the content of any statements, questions or other utterances made by anyone. There are to ways to express the statement, question or utterance. One is Direct Speech and Second one is Indirect Speech. In Direct Speech, we quote the statement as it was made. But in indirect speech, we have a slight change in words of the one who is making the statement. We don’t quote the exact words.

Direct and Indirect Narration

Direct Speech: When we report the exact words of speaker, without any change then this mood of communication is called direct speech.

Example: He said, “I am hungry”

Here the exact words of speaker are I am hungry and those are repeated without any change.

Indirect Speech: When we do not report the real words of speaker and change them, this mood of communication is called indirect speech.

Example: He sad that he was hungry.

Here we changed the real words of speaker.  I am hungry to He was hungry.

Direct and Indirect Speech with Rules and 100 Examples in English and Urdu - PDF Form is Available

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Direct and Indirect Speech Definition with rules and Examples in Urdu and English

Parts of Direct Speech
Reporting Speech Reported Speech
It contains the words of speaker, the person who is reporting the message Contains words of speaker whose message is reported
He said, “I will call you
He said = Reporting Speech I will call you = Reported Speech

Reported and Reporting Speech with rules and Examples in Urdu and English

 

Rules for Direct and Indirect Speech with Examples and Sentences in English and Urdu

Changes of Tenses:

Tenses Changes to
Present indefinite Past Indefinite
Present Continuous Past Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past indefinite Past Perfect
Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous Past perfect continuous
In all future tenses “will” Changes into “Would”

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Important Words to Change

Direct Indirect
Today That day
Yesterday The day before
Tomorrow Following day
Is, am Was
Was, were Had been
Did Had
Will, shall Would
Can Could
Must Had to
Ago Before
This That
These Those
Last The previous
Are Where
May Might
Now Then
Today That day
It That
next The following

Change in Pronoun:

1st Person Pronouns

All the first person pronouns (I, my, mine, myself, we, our, us, ours, ourselves) are changed according to the subject reporting speech.

Example:

She said, “I sold my car myself”

She said that she sold her car herself.

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2nd Person Pronouns

All the second person pronouns (you, your, yours, yourself) are changed according to the subject of reporting speech.

Example:

She said to me, “You wasted your precious time yourself”

She told me that I wasted my time myself

3rd Person Pronouns

Al the third person pronouns will remain unchanged.

Example:

He said, “She is busy with her toys”

She said that she was busy with her toys.

How does pronouns change in Direct and Indirect Speech

How does pronouns change in Direct and Indirect Speech

Persons of Pronouns

I My Me
You Your You
They Their Them
He His Him
She Her Her
We Our Us

 

First Person

I My Me
We Our Us

 

Second Person

You Your You

 

Third Person

They Their Them
He His Him
She Her Her

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How to change interrogative sentences

The word said is usually changed into asked or inquired. Full stop or period replaces sign of interrogative or question mark.

Example:

She said, “Do you know me?”

She asked if I knew her.

How to change imperative sentences

  • Sentences which express command, order and advice.
  • The word said changes into tell, request, suggestion, permit, asked, advice, warn, remind, force according to the sense of sentences.

Example:

She said, “Get out of my way”

She told me to get out of her way.

She said to me, “Please come with me”

She requested me to come with her.

How to change appetitive sentences

Sentences which show wish, desire, hope and prayer.

The word said changes into prayed and may changes into might.

Example:

My mother said to me, “May you live long”

My mother prayed that I might live long.

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How to change exclamatory sentences

Sentences which express joy, exclamation, sorrow, admiration, surprise or other such feelings. Interjection such as Ah! Oh! Alas! Hurrah!

The word said changes into exclaimed with, after which expressed feelings such as joy, sorrow, surprise, delight, happy, admiration, disgust and horror are used.

Example:

He said, “What a lovely sight!”

He exclaimed with admiration that it was a lovely sight.

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