English Grammar

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules and Examples in English & Urdu

Direct and Indirect Speech with Rules and 100 Examples in English and Urdu - PDF Form is Available

Direct and Indirect Speech is used to express the content of any statements, questions or other utterances made by anyone. There are to ways to express the statement, question or utterance. One is Direct Speech and Second one is Indirect Speech. In Direct Speech, we quote the statement as it was made. But in indirect speech, we have a slight change in words of the one who is making the statement. We don’t quote the exact words.

Direct and Indirect Narration

Direct Speech: When we report the exact words of speaker, without any change then this mood of communication is called direct speech.

Example: He said, “I am hungry”

Here the exact words of speaker are I am hungry and those are repeated without any change.

Indirect Speech: When we do not report the real words of speaker and change them, this mood of communication is called indirect speech.

Example: He sad that he was hungry.

Here we changed the real words of speaker.  I am hungry to He was hungry.

Direct and Indirect Speech with Rules and 100 Examples in English and Urdu - PDF Form is Available

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Direct and Indirect Speech Definition with rules and Examples in Urdu and English

Parts of Direct Speech
Reporting SpeechReported Speech
It contains the words of speaker, the person who is reporting the messageContains words of speaker whose message is reported
He said, “I will call you
He said = Reporting SpeechI will call you = Reported Speech

Reported and Reporting Speech with rules and Examples in Urdu and English

 

Rules for Direct and Indirect Speech with Examples and Sentences in English and Urdu

Changes of Tenses:

TensesChanges to
Present indefinitePast Indefinite
Present ContinuousPast Continuous
Present PerfectPast Perfect
Present Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
Past indefinitePast Perfect
Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
Past PerfectPast Perfect
Past Perfect ContinuousPast perfect continuous
In all future tenses “will”Changes into “Would”

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Important Words to Change

DirectIndirect
TodayThat day
YesterdayThe day before
TomorrowFollowing day
Is, amWas
Was, wereHad been
DidHad
Will, shallWould
CanCould
MustHad to
AgoBefore
ThisThat
TheseThose
LastThe previous
AreWhere
MayMight
NowThen
TodayThat day
ItThat
nextThe following

Change in Pronoun:

1st Person Pronouns

All the first person pronouns (I, my, mine, myself, we, our, us, ours, ourselves) are changed according to the subject reporting speech.

Example:

She said, “I sold my car myself”

She said that she sold her car herself.

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2nd Person Pronouns

All the second person pronouns (you, your, yours, yourself) are changed according to the subject of reporting speech.

Example:

She said to me, “You wasted your precious time yourself”

She told me that I wasted my time myself

3rd Person Pronouns

Al the third person pronouns will remain unchanged.

Example:

He said, “She is busy with her toys”

She said that she was busy with her toys.

How does pronouns change in Direct and Indirect Speech

How does pronouns change in Direct and Indirect Speech

Persons of Pronouns

IMyMe
YouYourYou
TheyTheirThem
HeHisHim
SheHerHer
WeOurUs

 

First Person

IMyMe
WeOurUs

 

Second Person

YouYourYou

 

Third Person

TheyTheirThem
HeHisHim
SheHerHer

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How to change interrogative sentences

The word said is usually changed into asked or inquired. Full stop or period replaces sign of interrogative or question mark.

Example:

She said, “Do you know me?”

She asked if I knew her.

How to change imperative sentences

  • Sentences which express command, order and advice.
  • The word said changes into tell, request, suggestion, permit, asked, advice, warn, remind, force according to the sense of sentences.

Example:

She said, “Get out of my way”

She told me to get out of her way.

She said to me, “Please come with me”

She requested me to come with her.

How to change appetitive sentences

Sentences which show wish, desire, hope and prayer.

The word said changes into prayed and may changes into might.

Example:

My mother said to me, “May you live long”

My mother prayed that I might live long.

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How to change exclamatory sentences

Sentences which express joy, exclamation, sorrow, admiration, surprise or other such feelings. Interjection such as Ah! Oh! Alas! Hurrah!

The word said changes into exclaimed with, after which expressed feelings such as joy, sorrow, surprise, delight, happy, admiration, disgust and horror are used.

Example:

He said, “What a lovely sight!”

He exclaimed with admiration that it was a lovely sight.

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